Try the team approach to nutrition

One of the problems with nutrition is that it is too complex for simple thinking. Unlike drugs, which are designed to inhibit a particular target enzyme, nutrients often work in combinations like a team operating at the genetic level. When you try to apply drug-like thinking (i.e. one compound has to do all the work) to nutrient research, then the results are often underwhelming. Nowhere is this clearer than when we look at how nutrients interact to control body weight.

Weight gain can be best understood as a defect in both metabolism (the conversion of dietary energy into chemical energy) and storage (the stockpiling of excess dietary intake). This involves a four-way conversation between the brain, the gut, the liver and the adipose tissue. The only way these various organs can communicate with each other is via hormones. The gut sends signals to the brain when to stop eating. If the brain receives those signals loud and clear, your desire for food decreases (i.e. satiety). Finally, the food that has been ingested is either converted by the liver into suitable metabolites that can either be used for generating chemical energy (i.e. ATP) or stored (primarily in the fat cells) for future use. When it all works together, it runs smoothly. When it doesn’t work well, you end up gaining more body fat accelerating the pathway toward chronic disease.

One of the key hormones in this complex communication process is adiponectin. Apidonectin is an anti-inflammatory hormone made by the fat cells that is essential for reducing insulin resistance and preventing lipotoxicity (1). In other words, it is at the center of this complex hormonal communication system to help keep body weight in check and slow the development of chronic disease. Great, but how do you increase adiponectin?

First, there is no drug that can do it, but there are nutrients that can. One approach is to consume more omega-3 fatty acids (1). High levels of omega-3 fatty acids activate a genetic transcription factor that causes the increased production of adiponectin. But it takes a lot of high purity omega-3 oil to turn on that gene transcription factor. Now there appears to be another way: Taking polyphenols (2). The polyphenols don’t increase the activity of the genetic transcription factor, but they do facilitate the assembly of adiponectin into its most active form. Of course, if you don’t have enough omega-3 fatty acids in the diet, you can’t produce the necessary adiponectin building blocks to be assembled. When you combine the two (high purity omega-3 oil and polyphenols), then you don’t need to use as much of either one for the desired end result (3).

That’s how nutrition really works. You have to use a team nutrient approach to alter genetic expression. A lot more complicated than giving a single drug, but of course without the inherent side effects.

References

  1. Sears B. “Toxic Fat.” Thomas Nelson. Nashville, TN (2008)
  2. Neschen S, Morino K, Rossbacher JC, Pongratz RL, Cline GW, Sono S, Gillum M, and Shulman GI. “Fish oil regulates adiponectin secretion by a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma-dependent mechanism in mice.” Diabetes 55: 924-928 (2006)
  3. Wang Q, Liu M, Liu X, Dong LQ, Glickman RD, Slage TJ, Zhou Z, and Liu F. “Up-regulation of adiponectin by resveratrol.” J Biol Chem 286: 60-66 (2011)
  4. Shirai N and Suzuki H. “Effects of simultaneous intakes of fish oil and green tea extracts on plasma, glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and adiponectin and on liver lipid concentrations in mice fed low- and high-fat diets.” Ann Nutr Metab 52: 241-249 (2008)

Nothing contained in this blog is intended to be instructional for medial diagnosis or treatment. If you have a medical concern or issue, please consult your personal physician immediately.

Increased satiety: The real secret to weight loss

Satiety is defined as lack of hunger. If you aren’t hungry, then cutting back calories is easy. Unfortunately, Americans seem to be hungrier than ever. This is not caused by a lack of willpower but due to hormonal imbalances in the hypothalamus that tell the brain to either seek more food or spend time on more productive activities. So the real question is not what is the best diet for weight loss, but what is the best diet for satiety?

the anti inflammatory diet has been clinically shown to burn fat faster than standard, recommended diets (1-3) as well as decreasing hunger compared to standard, recommended diets (4,5). But then whoever said that standard, recommended diets (like the USDA Food Pyramid) are good? A better comparison might be the anti inflammatory diet versus a Mediterranean diet.

I have often said that the anti inflammatory diet should be considered as the evolution of the Mediterranean diet because of its enhanced hormonal control. So where is the data for my contention?

The first randomized controlled research appeared in 2007 using patients with existing heart disease (6). In this study, while both groups lost weight, it was only the group on a Paleolithic diet that had any benefits in glucose reduction. So what’s a Paleolithic diet? In this study it was one that supplied 40 percent of the calories as low-glycemic-load carbohydrates, 28 percent of the calories as low-fat protein, and 28 percent from fat (the remaining calories came from alcohol, which didn’t exist in Paleolithic times). That sounds exactly like the anti inflammatory diet to me, so I will simply call it that. On the other hand, the Mediterranean diet was lower in protein (20 percent) and higher in carbohydrates (50 percent) as well as containing far more cereals and dairy products than the anti inflammatory diet.

The interesting thing that came out of this initial study was that patients on the anti inflammatory diet were apparently eating fewer calories, but with greater satiety. So they repeated the study again with another set of cardiovascular patients, except they measured leptin levels this time. The results were exactly the same (7), that is the anti inflammatory diet was more satiating per calorie, and there was also a greater reduction in leptin levels. This makes perfect sense since improved glycemic control seen in the first comparison study (6) would have been a consequence of reducing insulin resistance. The decrease in the leptin levels in the second study (7) would have been a consequence of the reduction of leptin resistance. The most likely cause of this hormone resistance would be the anti-inflammatory benefits of the anti inflammatory diet because it decreases cellular inflammation. It’s cellular inflammation that disrupts hormonal signaling efficiency and causes hormone resistance.

So here we have two randomized controlled studies (6,7) that indicate the superiority of the anti inflammatory diet compared to Mediterranean diet relative to reducing hormone resistance as well providing greater satiety with fewer calories, just as demonstrated in earlier studies when the anti inflammatory diet was compared to standard recommended diets (4,5). It is increased satiety that is ultimately how you lose weight and keep it off. The anti inflammatory diet appears the easiest way to reach that goal.

References

1. Layman DK, Boileau RA, Erickson DJ, Painter JE, Shiue H, Sather C, and Christou DD. “A reduced ratio of dietary carbohydrate to protein improves body composition and blood lipid profiles during weight loss in adult women.” J Nutr 133: 411-417 (2003)

2. Lasker DA, Evans EM, and Layman DK, “Moderate-carbohydrate, moderate-protein weight-loss diet reduces cardiovascular disease risk compared to high-carbohydrate, low-protein diet in obese adults. A randomized clinical trial.” Nutrition and Metabolism 5: 30 (2008)

3. Fontani G, Corradeschi F, Felici A, Alfatti F, Bugarini R, Fiaschi AI, Cerretani D, Montorfano G, Rizzo AM and Berra B. “Blood profiles, body fat and mood state in healthy subjects on different diets supplemented with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.” Eur J Clin Invest 35: 499-507 (2005)

4. Ludwig DS, Majzoub JA, Al-Zahrani A, Dallal GE, Blanco I, and Roberts SB. “High glycemic-index foods, overeating, and obesity.” Pediatrics 103:e26 (1999)

5. Agus MSD, Swain JF, Larson CL, Eckert E, and Ludwig DS. “Dietary composition and physiological adaptations to energy restriction.” Am J Clin Nutr 71: 901-907 (2000)

6. Lindberg S, Jonsson T, Granfeldt Y, Borgstrand E, Soffman J, Sjostrom K and Ahren B. “A Paleolithic diet improves glucose tolerance more than a Mediterrean-like diet in individuals with ischaemic heart disease.” Diabetologia 50: 1795-1807 (2007)

7. Jonsson T, Granfeldt Y, Erlanson-Albertsson, Ahren B, and Lindeber S. “A Paleolithic diet is more satiating per calorie than a Mediterrean-like diet in individuals with ischemic heart disease.” Nutrition & Metabolism 7:85 (2010)

Nothing contained in this blog is intended to be instructional for medial diagnosis or treatment. If you have a medical concern or issue, please consult your personal physician immediately.

The secret of blueberries: It’s the dephinidins

We continually hear about the benefits of fruits and vegetables for better health. There are a number of them. One is obviously their lower glycemic load that reduces insulin secretion. Another is their polyphenol content that gives fruits and vegetables their colors. Although virtually no research was conducted on polyphenols before 1995, since that time there has been a explosion of animal studies that have indicated their remarkable benefits as anti-oxidants and anti-inflammatory agents.

Upon deeper inspection, there is one group of polyphenols that seems to generate the most consistent health benefits. These are the delphinidins. Delphinidins are a subgroup of a family of polyphenols known as anthocyanidins. To make the story about delphinidins more intriguing, they are primarily found in blueberries. More specifically, the primary sources of delphinidins are the American blueberry, the Russian blueberry (i.e. bilberry), and the Patagonian blueberry (i.e. maqui berry). This is why the published clinical studies in humans seem to consistently involve blueberries. And the clinical data is impressive. Whether it is about reducing oxidized cholesterol or improving insulin resistance in patients with metabolic syndrome (1,2) or improving memory in patients with early dementia (3), the human data on the use of blueberries simply jumps out at you.

Since the active ingredient in each of these varieties of blueberries appears to be the delphinidins, then it is reasonable that the higher the levels of this particular polyphenol, the better the potential results. The Russian blueberry contains six times more delphinidins than American blueberries, and the Patagonia blueberry contains 14 times more delphinidins than the American blueberry. This probably reflects the harsher growing climates that other forms of blueberries are exposed to when compared to the American blueberry, which has become overly domesticated (making it richer in fructose and lower in delphinidins).

However, as with all natural products you have to take a therapeutic dose to get a therapeutic effect. You could measure this therapeutic threshold in terms of their anti-oxidative potential (measured in ORAC units) or the actual amounts of delphinidins themselves. It appears that for a blueberry extract to be effective requires that it provides at least 16,000 ORAC units per day. To put this in perspective, this level of ORAC units is equivalent to eating greater than 20-30 servings of vegetables on a daily basis.

But if the delphinidins are so important for the benefits of blueberries, isn’t it possible that the smaller amounts of the maqui berry might be even more beneficial because of its higher delphinidin concentration? That’s why we have several ongoing clinical trials to explore that potential. I will keep you informed as the results start coming in. Yet in the meantime, keep eating lots of those colorful carbohydrates just like your grandmother told you to eat.

References
1. Stull AJ, Cash KC, Johnson WD, Champagne CM, and Cefalu WT. “Bioactives in blueberries improve insulin sensitivity in obese, insulin-resistant men and women.” J Nutr 140: 1764-1768 (2010)
2. Basu A, Du M, Leyva MJ, Sanchez K, Betts NM, Wu M, Aston CE, and Lyons TJ. “Blueberries decrease cardiovascular risk factors in obese men and women with metabolic syndrome.” J Nutr 140: 1582 1588 (2010)
3. Krikorian R, Shidler MD, Nash TA, Kalt W, Vinqivst-Tymchuk R, Shukitt-Hale R, and Joseph JA. “Blueberry supplementation improves memory in older adults.” J Agric Food Chem 58: 3996-4000 (2010)

Nothing contained in this blog is intended to be instructional for medial diagnosis or treatment. If you have a medical concern or issue, please consult your personal physician immediately.

Want to lose Weight? Eat like our Paleolithic ancestors

A recent article appeared in the British Journal of Nutrition that gives an updated estimate of what diet (i.e. Paleolithic) our ancestors may have eaten during the time from their first appearance in Africa some 200,000 years ago until they started leaving Africa 100,000 years later (1). This is important because this type of diet until 10,000 years ago (with the advent of agriculture) was the nutritional foundation through which our genes evolved. Since our diet and gene expression are intimately tied together (2), understanding the dietary forces that molded how our genes respond to diet is important. This is particularly true since nutritional science has many conflicting interactions that make the study of a single nutrient often result in conflicting data. One such example is the study of insulin responses induced by the diet without studying the impact of fatty acid composition on insulin secretion and vice versa. This is why the study of Paleolithic nutrition provides a template to ask questions to optimize our current diet. In fact, I actually I stated this on page 99 of my first book, “The Zone” (3).

So what are the newest updates on the composition of the Paleolithic diet of our African ancestors? It appears the protein content was between 25 and 29 percent, the carbohydrates were about 40 percent and the total fat was about 30-36 percent. If that sounds familiar to the 30 percent protein, 40 percent carbohydrate, and 30 percent fat ratio in the anti inflammatory diet, it should. Essentially the newest estimate of the Paleolithic diet of our human ancestors in Africa is the anti inflammatory diet.

Equally important, it was estimated that the intake of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids (EPA and DHA) was about 6 grams per day. This is similar to my recommendations in “The OmegaRx Zone,” published in 2002 (4). The dietary ratio of arachidonic acid (AA) to EPA was also estimated in this article and was found to be about 2. Since the dietary intake of these fatty acids would be reflected in the blood, then we can assume the AA/EPA ratio in Paleolithic man was about 2. This AA/EPA ratio is again strikingly similar to the recommendations in my various books about what the best AA/EPA ratio should be for optimal control of the cellular inflammation, which leads to the acceleration of chronic disease (4-6).

When you follow the Paleolithic diet (a.k.a. the anti inflammatory diet), you find almost instantaneous changes in hormonal responses (7, 8) and improved glycemic control (8,9) before there is any weight loss. And if you continue to follow it, you not only lose weight, but also burn fat faster (11-14).

Was I just taking lucky guesses on my recommendations for the anti inflammatory diet over the past 15 years? I would like to think they were not lucky guesses, but based on insight coming from my background in drug delivery technology that strives for a therapeutic zone for optimal results. The lucky part was having the perseverance to stay true to those insights. On the other hand, it is always nice to get validation even 15 years after the fact.

References
1. Kuipers RS, Luxwolda MF, Dijck-Brouwer DJA, Eaton SB, Crawford, MA, Cordain L, and Muskiet FAJ. “Estimate macronutrient and fatty acid intakes from an East African paleolithic diet.” British J Nutr 104: 1666-1687 (2010)
2. Sears B and Ricordi C. “Anti-Inflammatory nutrition as a pharmacological approach to treat obesity.” J Obesity published online September 30, 2010. doi: 10.1155/2011/431985. (2010)
3. Sears B. “The Zone.” Regan Books. New York, NY (1995)
4. Sears B. “The OmegaRx Zone.” Regan Books. New York, NY (2002)
5. Sears B. “The Anti-Inflammation Zone.” Regan Books. New York, NY (2005)
6. Sears B. “Toxic Fat.” Nelson Publishing. Nashville, TN (2008)
7. Ludwig DS, Majzoub JA, Al-Zahrani A, Dallal GE, Blanco I, and Roberts SB. “High-glycemic-index foods, overeating, and obesity.” Pediatrics 103: E26 (1999)
8. Markovic TP, Jenkins AB, Campbell LV, Furler SM, Kragen EW, and Chisholm DJ. “The determinants of glycemic responses to diet restriction and weight loss in obesity and NIDDM.” Diabetes Care 21: 687-694 (1998)
9. Lindberg S, Jonsson T, Granfeldt Y, Borgstrand E, Soffman J, Sjorstrom K, and Ahren B. “A Paleolithic diet improves glucose tolerance more than a Mediterranean-like diet in individuals with ischaemic heart disease.” Diabetologia 50: 1795-1807 (2007)
10. Frassetto LA, Schloetter M, Mietus-Synder M, Morris RC, and Sebastian A. “Metabolic and physiologic improvements from consuming a Paleolithic, hunter-gatherer type diet.” Eur J Clin Nutr 63: 947-955 (2009)
11. Osterdahl M. Kocturk T. Koochek A, and Wandell PE. “Effects of a short-term intervention with a Paleolithic diet in healthy volunteers.” Eur J Clin Nutr 62: 682-685 (2008)
12. Layman DK, Boileau RA, Erickson DJ, Painter JE, Shiue H, Sather C, and Christou DD. “A reduced ratio of dietary carbohydrate to protein improves body composition and blood lipid profiles during weight loss in adult women.” J Nutr 133: 411-417 (2003)
13. Lasker DA, Evans EM, and Layman DK, “Moderate carbohydrate, moderate protein weight loss diet reduces cardiovascular disease risk compared to high-carbohydrate, low-protein diet in obese adults. A randomized clinical trial.” Nutrition and Metabolism 5: 30 (2008)
14. Fontani G, Corradeschi F, Felici A, Alfatti F, Bugarini R, Fiaschi AI, Cerretani D, Montorfano G, Rizzo AM and Berra B. “Blood profiles, body fat and mood state in healthy subjects on different diets supplemented with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.” Eur J Clin Invest 35: 499-507 (2005)

Nothing contained in this blog is intended to be instructional for medial diagnosis or treatment. If you have a medical concern or issue, please consult your personal physician immediately.

Aspirin…not just for heart disease

As I pointed in my first book, “The Zone,” more than 15 years ago, aspirin remains a wonder drug because of its ability to reduce inflammation (1). The medical community now uses aspirin for the prevention of strokes and heart attacks, but a recent study may extend its anti-inflammatory benefits to cancer survivors.

A study pre-published online from The Lancet examined various clinical trials comparing the long-term mortality of those individuals who used aspirin or didn’t (2). This meta-analysis study indicated that relatively low-dose aspirin (about 75 mg or a baby aspirin a day) reduced cancer deaths in various long-term cancer survivors by about 20 percent. So should all of us be taking a baby aspirin daily? Possibly, but aspirin does have side effects, especially in terms of bleeding.

But one thing you can do with total safety is to boost your intake of fruits and vegetables. It turns out that fruits and vegetables contain salicylates, the group of compounds that represents the major active ingredient in aspirin. In addition, fruits and vegetables also contain other anti-inflammatory polyphenols (the chemicals that give plants their color). Since plants don’t have access to the local pharmacy to protect themselves from microbial invasion, they have to synthesize their own “drugs”. By consuming fruits and vegetables, we are constantly visiting our “food” pharmacy. Their defense mechanisms now become our nutritional allies in silencing inflammatory gene expression that is turned on when certain food components (such as omega-6 and saturated fats) fool the most primitive part of the immune system (the innate immune system) to think it is under microbial attack.

Most of the inflammation that drives cardiovascular disease and cancer starts with this type of cellular inflammation induced by our diet (3). It’s taken new breakthroughs in molecular biology to finally understand that what’s good for the plant is also going to be great for us if we want to live a longer and better life.

References
1. Sears B. “The Zone.” Regan Books. New York, NY (1995)
2. Rothwell PM, Fowkes FG, Belch JF, Ogawa H, Warlow CP, and Meade TW. “Effects of daily aspirin on long-term risk of death due to cancer: analysis of individual patient data from randomized trials.” Lancet, Early Online Publication, 7 December (2010)
3. Sears B. “The Anti-Inflammation Zone.” Regan Books. New York, NY (2005)

Nothing contained in this blog is intended to be instructional for medial diagnosis or treatment. If you have a medical concern or issue, please consult your personal physician immediately.

Does eating fat make you fat?

The 1990s brought with it an era of people fearing fat. After all, “if no fat touches my lips, then no fat reaches my hips”. Harvard took charge of this debate and declared war against fat, especially saturated fat. Manufacturers created everything from fat-free yogurt to cookies. Overall, fat intake did decrease nationwide during this time, but the waist lines of the U.S. population continued to expand. Despite recent reports about the Mediterranean diet and the benefits of monounsaturated fats, the low-fat craze still has many hardwired to think that eating higher-fat foods will make them fat. Although calorically speaking, fat is more energy dense than carbohydrates and protein, a recent study may help to ease people’s preconceived notions on the role of fat and weight gain.

There have been inconsistent findings in the literature on whether the type of fat consumed influences weight change. Even studies in which poly and monounsaturated fats have been substituted for saturated fat to lower cardiovascular disease were equally wishy-washy (1). In fact, a recent study published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition questions whether dietary fat played a role in future weight gain (2). Of the more than 89,000 men and women studied, overall fat consumption ranged from 31.5 percent to 36.5 percent. No matter the total fat intake or the type of fat consumed, there was no effect on weight gain over the long term in either men or women. Maybe fat doesn’t make you fat.

This only proves you can always tell a Harvard man, you just can’t tell him very much.

1) Siri-Tarino PW, Sun Q, Hu FB, Krauss RM. Saturated fat, carbohydrate, and cardiovascular disease. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Jan 20.

2) Forouhi NG, Sharp SJ, Du H, van der A DL, Halkjaer J, Schulze MB, Tjønneland A, Overvad K, Jakobsen MU, Boeing H, Buijsse B, Palli D, Masala G, Feskens EJ, Sørensen TI, Wareham NJ. Dietary fat intake and subsequent weight change in adults: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohorts. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Dec;90(6):1632-41.

Nothing contained in this blog is intended to be instructional for medial diagnosis or treatment. If you have a medical concern or issue, please consult your personal physician immediately.

Eat your breakfast

You’ve probably heard it a billion times. “Don’t skip breakfast!” But most Americans, adults and children, are not heeding this advice. There are a bunch of reasons why you should eat breakfast within one hour of waking. And it’s even better if the meal is Zone balanced – the correct amount of lean protein, low-glycemic carbohydrates and a dash of monounsaturated fat.

After sleeping a full night, your blood sugar level is low, and you are in a catabolic state. This means that body has been using up stored energy in the liver as well as beginning to cannibalize your muscle for energy. If you skip breakfast, your blood sugar stays low and cannibalization of your muscle will continue. This is a stress situation, and the body releases more cortisol as a response. This creates insulin resistance that increases insulin levels further, driving down blood sugar even more. No wonder by mid-morning you are incredibly hungry.

The whole basis of the anti inflammatory diet is to keep your insulin in a zone, not too high and not too low. This will stabilize blood sugar and prevent continuing muscle degradation for energy. Eating a Zone breakfast can help keep your insulin stabilized, provide the necessary protein to start rebuilding muscle mass and increase the levels of glycogen in the liver. This is called anabolism. It is this continued balance of catabolism and anabolism that we call metabolism. As long as the two phases of metabolism are balanced, so are your weight and your mood. This is why breakfast is so critically important for your alertness, productivity, increased cognition and memory, satiety, and weight control because it starts your day out on a high note as opposed to digging a deeper hormonal hole that you try to crawl out during the rest of the day. A balanced Zone breakfast is also the easiest way to keep your sugar cravings under control during the day. In other words, you will not need the constant trips to the vending machine or your secret stash of candy to artificially maintain blood sugar levels.

Still not convinced? Then give your kids breakfast. Research shows a link between regular breakfast consumption and improvement in academic performance and psychosocial functioning as well as cognition among children. Eating a breakfast every day will be the best way to protect any child against becoming overweight. Make that a Zone breakfast balanced in protein, low glycemic-load carbohyrates, and monounsaturated fat, and you have the ideal pediatric weight-loss program as obese children are less hungry at their next meal as demonstrated at Harvard Medical School more than a decade ago.2 This finding at Harvard was also confirmed by a research study in the Journal of the American Dietetic Association on breakfast consumption among children that found the prevalence of obesity to be higher in those who regularly skipped breakfast.3 Evidence also suggests that breakfast consumption may improve cognitive function related to memory, test grades, and school attendance.4 Want the smartest and leanness kid in the school? It’s easy — feed them a Zone breakfast every day. While you are at it, make each of their meals a Zone meal and give them plenty of EPA and DHA at the same time.

[1] Affenito S. “Breakfast: A Missed Opportunity.” Journal of the American Dietetic Association 107:565-69 (2007)

2 Ludwig DS et al, “High glycemic index foods, overeating, and obesity.” Pediatrics 103: e26 (1999)

3 Deshmukh-Taskar P et al. “The relationship of breakfast skipping and type of breakfast consumption with nutrient intake and weight status in children and adolescents: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2006.” Journal of American Dietetic Association 110:869-78 (2010)

4 Rampersaud G et al. “Breakfast habits, nutritional status, body weight, and academic performance in children and adolescents.” Journal of American Dietetic Association 105: 843-60 (2005)

Nothing contained in this blog is intended to be instructional for medial diagnosis or treatment. If you have a medical concern or issue, please consult your personal physician immediately.

The Mood-lifting properties of B-vitamins

In a previous blog we addressed the impact of omega-3 fatty acids and their mood-lifting properties, and now it looks like we can add certain B-vitamins to the list. A recent publication in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition looked at whether dietary intakes of vitamin B-6, B-12 and folate had an association with depressive symptoms in a community-based population of adults aged 65 and older over a period of seven years (1). The study concluded that higher intakes of vitamin B-6 and B-12, but not folate, were associated with a decreased likelihood of depressive symptoms. This held true even after 12 years of follow-up. For every 10 micrograms of intake of B-6 and every 10 micrograms of B-12, there was a 2 percent decline in depressive symptoms per year.

Besides their mood lifting properties, vitamin B-6 and vitamin B-12 have other important roles. Vitamin B-6 is a water-soluble vitamin that is involved in more than 100 enzymes needed for protein metabolism. It’s critical for red blood cell metabolism, and it plays a role in the nervous and immune system (2). Vitamin B-12 is also a water-soluble vitamin that is involved in red blood cell formation, neurological function and DNA synthesis (3).

Now that you’ve read this article, it doesn’t mean go out and purchase mega doses of these vitamins. It’s not hard to consume either of these vitamins in your diet. Vitamin B-6 is found in a variety of foods from beans, meat, poultry, fish and some fruits and vegetables. Unlike B-6, the main dietary sources of vitamin B-12 include animal sources: fish, meat, poultry, eggs, milk, and milk products. B-12 is not found in plant foods unless they are fortified. Three ounces of clams supply approximately 34 micrograms of B-12, about 570 percent of the daily intake (3). If you feel like your intake of either of these vitamins is low, a multi-vitamin that supplies no more than 100 percent of the daily value should be sufficient.

1) Skarupski KA, Tangney C, Li H, Ouyang B, Evans DA, Morris MC. Longitudinal association of vitamin B-6, folate, and vitamin B-12 with depressive symptoms among older adults over time. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Jun 2. [Epub ahead of print]

2) Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: B6. Available at: http://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/vitaminb6.asp. Accessed: July 2, 2010.

3) Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: B-12. Available at: http://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/vitaminb12.asp. Accessed: July 2, 2010.

Nothing contained in this blog is intended to be instructional for medial diagnosis or treatment. If you have a medical concern or issue, please consult your personal physician immediately.

More bad news on Toxic Fat with a glimmer of hope

Last month, I discussed disturbing new data on the impact of omega-6 fatty acids on genetic expression (Cardiovascular Psychiatry and Neurology (2009;2009:867041). At the recent International Fatty Acid Conference in the Netherlands I had the opportunity to talk with Joe Hibbeln, the lead author, of that study at length.

During the conference, his group presented more data on how excess omega-6 fatty acids double the production of endocannabinoids (the hormones that make you hungry). Furthermore, increasing the intake of omega-6 fatty acids from 1 percent of total calories (what it was in 1960 and apparently all the way back to 1900) to 8 percent of total calories (the current level in the American diet) causes massive genetic changes that result in greater obesity.

It should be noted that the American Heart Association recommends 5-10 percent of total calories should be omega-6 fats. Let’s put this into perspective. 1 percent of total calories represents about 20 calories or about 2 grams of omega-6 fatty acids. That’s the amount to fill about one-half teaspoon. Eight percent of the total calories (assuming a 2,000-calorie-per-day intake) represent 16 grams of omega-6 fatty acids. That’s the amount that would fill a tablespoon.

There it is. The difference between being lean and fat may be determined by a very small amount of the same fats being pushed by agribusiness and the American Heart Association. These fats are ubiquitous as they also represent the cheapest form of calories and are the foundation of American agribusiness.

The only good news from the conference is that if you take 2 grams of EPA and DHA per day, you can reverse the inflammatory damage done by the increase in omega-6 fatty acid consumption. So maybe our obesity epidemic started the day that mothers stopped giving their children a daily tablespoon of cod liver oil that would have contained 2.5 grams of EPA and DHA. Fortunately, you can get the same amount of EPA and DHA today with only four capsules or one teaspoon of OmegaRx and without the excessive toxins contained in today’s cod liver oil or other fish oil available in grocery or health-food stores.

But without the added EPA and DHA in the American diet, we are probably doomed to become fatter, sicker and dumber with each succeeding generation.

United States’ major export: Obesity

By Dr. Barry Sears

Back in 2005, in my book “The Anti-Inflammation Zone” I wrote that many trends start in the United States and then cover the globe. We’ve exported Big Macs, Coca-Cola and the USDA Food Pyramid.

Now, five years later a report from the research organization, Datamonitor, indicates we have also exported childhood obesity – now more than one-third of European children are obese.

The organization attributes this weight gain to increased affluence and blames the usual suspects. “This is caused by a combination of eating too many calories and not doing enough physical activity,” according to the report.

That’s the same mantra that is used over and over in the United States. But obesity will not be curbed by eating less and exercising more unless we find shelter from the perfect nutritional storm that began in the United States and now has been exported across the globe.

New research indicates the primary factor has been the increasing consumption of omega-6 fatty acids found in vegetable oils, made in the USA.

The United States is also the king as far as processed foods are concerned, and we’ve been happy to share our junk food with children around the world.

And in Europe, as well as here at home, the amount of omega-3s consumed has dramatically declined.

The solution is to follow an anti inflammatory diet, increase intake of omega-3 fatty acids and dramatically reduce the intake of omega-6 fatty acids. Unfortunately this is easier said than done because of the ubiquitous presence of omega-6 fatty acids in virtually every processed food. Fortunately, increased intake of EPA and DHA (about 2.5 grams of EPA and DHA per day) can dilute out the inflammatory impact of these excess omega-6 fatty acids on our genes.

The bottom line, no pun intended, is that if there is no dietary change, children will continue to get fatter no matter how much they exercise because the genes that make children fat and keep them fat are being constantly turned on by diet they consume.

Nothing contained in this blog is intended to be instructional for medial diagnosis or treatment. If you have a medical concern or issue, please consult your personal physician immediately.