If you’re fat, you may be OK

It is well known from epidemiological studies that about 30 percent of obese individuals and 50 percent of overweight individuals are relatively healthy in terms of cardiometabolic risk factors (1). The same study also indicated that about 25 percent of normal-weight individuals have significant cardiometabolic risk. A follow-up study indicated individuals defined as “metabolically healthy obese” are not at any long-term risk of heart disease (2).

Is the world turning upside down?

I explained the reasons behind these paradoxical observations in my most recent book, “Toxic Fat,” published three years ago (3). It simply depends on what type of fat cells you have. If you have healthy fat cells (“good” fat), they will pull excess arachidionic acid out of the bloodstream and store it in the fat cells. This buried arachidonic acid can spread inflammation to other organs that ultimately results in the appearance of cardiometabolic risk factors. On the other hand, if you have “bad” fat (unhealthy or sick fat cells), they are not very effective in removing arachidonic acid from the bloodstream. Once this happens, circulating arachidonic acid can metastasize like a cancer to other organs. This begins a very slippery slope toward the early development of cardiometabolic diseases, such as diabetes and heart disease. Finally, you get to the stage of dying fat cells that are surrounded by inflammatory macrophages. Now you are in true trouble as the previously stored arachidonic acid is more rapidly released back into the bloodstream.

Now let's fast forward to a new article in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology (4) that simply confirms what I wrote about fat cell inflammation three years ago. As with the earlier epidemiological study, researchers found that about 30 percent of the obese subjects had little inflammation in their fat cells as indicated by the absence of inflammatory macrophages. This percentage of obese patients was essentially identical to that found in the earlier epidemiological study (1). When the arterial blood flow of the metabolically healthy obese was compared to lean subjects, the rates were virtually identical, whereas the arterial blood flow rates were much lower (that's bad) in the obese subjects who had significant fat cell inflammation.

Unfortunately, their characterization of inflamed fat cells was incorrect. What they were really looking at was dying fat cells. The fat cells of these so-called metabolically healthy obese subjects were already sick (i.e., bad fat) since there were metabolic markers (hyperinsulinemia, increased TG/HDL ratios, elevated blood glucose and increased CRP levels) that indicated that inflammation was already spreading to other organs (such as the liver, muscles and pancreas).

The best way to know if you have truly healthy fat cells (no matter how many you have) is to have a low AA/EPA ratio in the blood. This remains the best clinical marker of the true health of the adipose tissue. If you have healthy fat cells (good fat), then you can expect cellular inflammation in other organs will be reduced leading to a longer and better life no matter what your weight.

References

  1. Wildman RP, Muntner P, Reynolds K, McGinn AP, Rajpathak S, Wylie-Rosett J, and Sowers MR. “The obese without cardiometabolic risk factor clustering and the normal weight with cardiometabolic risk factor clustering: prevalence and correlates of 2 phenotypes among the US population.” (NHANES 1999-2004) Arch Intern Med 168: 1617-1624 (2008)
  2. Wildman RP. “Healthy obesity.” Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 12: 438-443 (2009)
  3. Sears B. “Toxic Fat.” Thomas Nelson. Nashville, TN (2008)
  4. Farb MG, Bigornia S, Mott M, Tanriverdi K, Morin KM, Freedman JE, Joseph L, Hess DT, Apovian CM, Vita JA, and Gokce N. “Reduced adipose tissue inflammation represents an intermediate cardiometabolic phenotype in obesity.” J Am Coll Cardiol 58: 232-237 (2011)

Nothing contained in this blog is intended to be instructional for medial diagnosis or treatment. If you have a medical concern or issue, please consult your personal physician immediately.

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This entry was posted in Zone Diet and tagged , , , by Dr. Barry Sears. Bookmark the permalink.

About Dr. Barry Sears

Dr. Barry Sears is a leading authority on the impact of the diet on hormonal response, genetic expression, and inflammation. A former research scientist at the Boston University School of Medicine and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dr. Sears has dedicated his research efforts over the past 30 years to the study of lipids. He has published more than 30 scientific articles and holds 13 U.S. patents in the areas of intravenous drug delivery systems and hormonal regulation for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. He has also written 13 books, including the New York Times #1 best-seller "The Zone". These books have sold more than 5 million copies in the U.S. and have been translated into 22 different languages.

7 thoughts on “If you’re fat, you may be OK

    • What is an AA/EPA (omega-6 vs omega-3 or archidonic acid/ eiconasoic acid) ratio and what are the normal, low and high ratios? can i ask for this test from my physician where I go for health care along with other blood tests performed regularly as for my PSA or cholestorol, annual physical, etc?

      I have been on fish oil for 16 years 3 grams per day and was recently diagnosed for AF, but w/out any symptoms. My CRP is low (0.1) and am low risk framingham score and have been w/ 81 mg aspirin for over 10 yrs which is also now approved by physician as adequate blood thinner. Weight and cholestorol numbers are normal. How effective is fish oil and how significant is its contribution in preventing plaque breaking up and causing a stroke. Pls refer me to applicable studies available on line on this if possible.
      I’m hoping that fish oil will preclude having to use more potent blood thinners in future as warfarin. Pls keep this confidential by using only my initials or replying w/o actually posting here. thankyou, KV

    • The AA/EPA ratio is done through a blood test. We have developed a simple finger prick test that should be available in September.

      A good AA/EPA ratio is between 1.5 and 3 as found in the Japanese population.

  1. I am also curious and will ask my doctor if it can be measured here in Australia. Offers something positive for once to those of us who have always been big but are also active and eat well–trying to stay in the Zone.
    Thanks

  2. certainly like your website however you have to take a look at the spelling on several of your posts. Many of them are rife with spelling issues and I in finding it very troublesome to inform the reality however I will definitely come again again.

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